NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS
Roman numerals is a numbering system that developed in Ancient Rome and was used throughout the Roman Empire maintained after his disappearance.
The Roman numeration system uses uppercase letters (from the Latin alphabet) as symbols to represent certain values, leading to the interpretation of numbers as the result of letter combinations following an additive and subtractive system, that is, using both addition and subtraction.
WHAT DO WE USE ROMAN NUMBERS FOR?
Today we still use Roman numerals on countless occasions and, below, we will show you some of the examples:
We use Roman numerals to name kings and queens (Felipe VI of Spain, Isabel II of the United Kingdom), the popes (Francisco I), to identify centuries (21st century), anniversaries, congresses, competitions, awards, the Olympic games, the chapters of a book, the acts and scenes of the plays... and we even use them on the clocks.
ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE
Could you explain what a Roman circus is? And an aqueduct? And what are the Roman baths? All these words come from the ancient Roman Empire.
Did you know that the Romans created causeways all over the Mediterranean? In Spain, the most important carriageway was the Via Augusta and it measured more than 1,500 kilometers connecting the Pyrenees with Cádiz.
Select the video to learn more about the Roman Empire: the founding of Rome, the Republic, the Roman emperors, the estates which was divided into Roman society, the amphitheaters, the legion...
EQUIVALENCES BETWEEN ROMAN AND ARABIC NUMBERS
Do you know what Roman numerals are and what are they for? Can you tell how much each letter is worth? Do you know all his writing rules? Don't worry, we provide you with templates in PDF format so that you can download and print all Roman numerals from 0 to 2,000 as well as the equivalence between the Indo-Arabic and Roman numerals.
Recognize the value of letters in the Roman Numeration System: I - V - X - L - C - D - M
The Roman Numeral System is made up of 7 capital letters where each one of them has its own numerical value.
The natural numbers are built by joining these symbols, where, based on a set of rules, each of the letters will add or subtract.
Very important! Remember that Roman numerals are read and written from left to right as well as from highest to lowest value.
Curiosity: Roman numerals are written with letters of the Roman alphabet (also known as "Latin alphabet"), but they originally came from the Etruscans (people of Antiquity originating in the province of Tuscany, in northern Italy), who used the symbols I, Λ, X, Ψ, 8 and ⊕ to represent I, V, X, L, C and M.
Know and apply the rules of the Roman Numeral System: Addition rule
We propose some activities in PDF format together with the explanation of the addition rule:
"A letter written to the right of another of equal or greater value, adds its value to that letter"
Very important! The symbols V (value 5), L (value 50) and D (value 500) always add up, that is, they can never be to the left of a higher value symbol to subtract .
Let's see the explanation using the example of the number 95:
If we represent the number 95 using the letters VC it would be incorrect (since the letter V cannot be to the left of a higher value number such as, in this case, the letter C which equals 100). Therefore, we will represent the number 95 using the XCV symbols (100 - 10 + 5)
Know and apply the rules of the Roman Numeral System: Subtraction rule
We provide you some exercises ready to download supported by the explanation of the subtraction rule:
"The letters I, X and C written to the left of each of the two letters with the highest value that follow, subtract its value from that letter"
Rules for correctly writing Roman numerals following the subtraction rule:
- The symbol I can only subtract V (value 5) and X (value 10)
- The symbol X can only subtract L (value 50) and C (value 100)
- The symbol C can only subtract D (value 500) and M (value 1,000)
Know and apply the rules of the Roman Numeral System: Repetition rule
We propose some activities ready to print together with the explanation of the repetition rule:
"The letters I, X, C and M can be repeated two and three times and always add up; on the other hand, the letters V, L and D cannot be repeated"
Very important: The V, the L and the D cannot be duplicated because other letters ("X", "C" and "M") represent their duplicate value:
The number 10 is represented by the letter X since writing it "VV" (5 + 5) would be incorrect. Nor can we write "LL" (50 + 50) to represent 100 (we use the letter C) or repeat "DD" (500 + 500) to represent 1,000 since we use the symbol M
Know and apply the rules of the Roman Numeral System: Multiplication rule
We provide you with exercises accompanied by the explanation of the multiplication rule that is used to write numbers equal to or greater than 4,000:
"An upper bar above a letter or group of letters multiplies its value by a thousand"
Read and write numbers in the Roman Numeral System
ROMAN NUMBERS UP TO THOUSANDS
Rule for writing Roman numerals up to 3,999
We will use the rule of repetition using the letter "M" to represent 1,000 (M), 2,000 (MM) and 3,000 (MMM).
Example: MMDCCCLXXIX = 2,000 (MM) + 800 (DCCC) + 70 (LXX) + 9 (IV) = 2,879
Rule for writing Roman numerals from 4,000
We cannot repeat, in a row, more than three times a letter of the Roman numeration system (rule of repetition) so the number 4,000 cannot be represented with 4 letters "M". The solution is to draw a top bar above a letter or group of letters so that its value is multiplied by a thousand.
ROMAN NUMBERS UP TO MILLIONS
Rule for writing Roman numerals up to 3,999,999
Again we will use the symbol "M" and apply the rule of repetition. But now, as a differentiating element, we will draw a top bar so that each of the letters (M, MM and MMM) are multiplied by 1,000
For example, the number 2,000,000 arises from multiplying MM (value 2,000) by 1,000
Rule for writing Roman numerals from 4,000,000
To represent Roman numerals equal to or greater than 4,000,000, we will draw an upper horizontal double line over the group of letters that we wish to multiply by 1,000,000
Remember that each of the horizontal lines that we write on the letters multiplies the value of that letter by 1,000. In this case, as it is a double upper bar, it will multiply the value of the letters 2 times by 1,000: 1,000 x 1,000 = 1,000,000
ROMAN NUMBERS UP TO BILLIONS
Rule for writing Roman numerals up to 3,999,999,999
If we want to write a billion, two billion, or three billion; we simply have to draw a double upper bar over each of the letters (M, MM and MMM) so that they are multiplied by 1,000,000
For example, the number 3,000,000,000 comes from multiplying MMM (value 3,000) by 1,000,000 (double horizontal bar, that is, 1,000 x 1,000).
Rule for writing Roman numerals from 4,000,000,000
To represent Roman numerals equal to or greater than 4,000,000,000 we will draw a triple upper horizontal line over the group of letters that we wish to multiply by 1,000,000,000
Remember that each of the horizontal lines that we write on the letters multiplies the value of that letter by 1,000. In this case, being a upper triple bar, it will multiply the value of the letters 3 times by 1,000: 1,000 x 1,000 x 1,000 = 1,000,000,000
Classify numbers from the Roman Numeral System: Greater than - Less than - Equal
After learning how to write any Roman numeral correctly, we present you a set of activities so that you can also compare any two Roman numerals indicating which is the greater, the lower or if they are equivalent.
Identify the largest and smallest number in a series of numbers from the Roman Numeral System
We teach you to identify which is the greatest number and the smallest of a series of random Roman numerals from the downloadable exercises that we have prepared.
Classify numbers of the Roman Numeration System: Before - After numbers
We provide you with worksheets in PDF where you have to join the Roman numerals of the central column with their previous number (left) and their next (right).
Write the numbers of the Roman Numeration System before and after a given one
We instruct you in an learning where we present you some Roman numerals that you must identify and then write their previous number (left) and their after number (right).
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NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS
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