** Roman numerals ** is a ** numbering system ** that developed in ** Ancient Rome ** and was used throughout the ** Roman Empire ** maintained after his disappearance.

The Roman numeration system uses ** uppercase letters ** (from the Latin alphabet) as symbols to represent certain values, leading to the interpretation of numbers as the result of ** letter combinations ** following an ** additive and subtractive system**, that is, using both addition and subtraction.

WHAT DO WE USE ROMAN NUMBERS FOR?

Today we still __ use Roman numerals on countless occasions__ and, below, we will show you some of the ** examples**:

We use Roman numerals to name ** kings and queens ** (Felipe VI of Spain, Isabel II of the United Kingdom), the ** popes ** (Francisco I), to identify ** centuries ** (21st century), ** anniversaries**, ** congresses**, ** competitions**, ** awards**, the ** Olympic games**, the ** chapters** of a book, the acts and scenes of the ** plays**... and we even use them on the ** clocks**.

ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE

Could you explain what a ** Roman circus ** is? And an ** aqueduct**? And what are the ** Roman baths**? All these words come from the ancient Roman Empire.

Did you know that the Romans created ** causeways ** all over the Mediterranean? In ** Spain**, the most important carriageway was the ** Via Augusta ** and it measured more than 1,500 kilometers connecting the Pyrenees with Cádiz.

Select the video to learn more about the Roman Empire: the founding of ** Rome**, the ** Republic**, the ** Roman emperors**, the ** estates** which was divided into ** Roman society**, the ** amphitheaters**, the ** legion**...

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EQUIVALENCES BETWEEN ROMAN AND ARABIC NUMBERS

Do you know what ** Roman numerals ** are and what are they for? Can you tell how much each ** letter ** is worth? Do you know all his ** writing rules**? Don't worry, we provide you with templates in PDF format so that you can download and print all ** Roman numerals ** ** from 0 to 2,000 ** as well as the __ equivalence between the Indo-Arabic and Roman numerals__.

#### Recognize the value of letters in the Roman Numeration System: I - V - X - L - C - D - M

The Roman Numeral System is ** made up of 7 capital letters ** where each one of them has its own __ numerical value__.

The ** natural numbers are built by joining these symbols**, where, based on a set of rules, each of the letters will add or subtract.

__ Very important!__ Remember that ** Roman numerals are read and written from left to right ** as well as from highest to lowest value.

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** Curiosity**:

**Roman numerals**are written with letters of the

**Roman alphabet**(also known as "Latin alphabet"), but they

__originally came from the Etruscans__(people of Antiquity originating in the province of Tuscany, in northern Italy), who used the

**symbols I, Λ, X, Ψ, 8 and ⊕**to represent I, V, X, L, C and M.

#### Know and apply the rules of the Roman Numeral System: Addition rule

We propose some ** activities ** in PDF format together with the ** explanation ** of the ** addition rule**:

*"A letter written to the right of another of equal or greater value, adds its value to that letter"*

__ Very important!__ The symbols V (value 5), L (value 50) and D (value 500) always add up, that is, they can never be to the left of a higher value symbol to subtract .

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__Let's see the explanation using the example of the number 95:__

If we represent the ** number 95 ** using the letters ** VC it would be incorrect ** (since the letter V cannot be to the left of a higher value number such as, in this case, the letter C which equals 100). Therefore, ** we will represent the number 95 using the XCV symbols ** (100 - 10 + 5)

#### Know and apply the rules of the Roman Numeral System: Subtraction rule

We provide you some ** exercises ** ready to download supported by the ** explanation ** of the ** subtraction rule**:

*"The letters I, X and C written to the left of each of the two letters with the highest value that follow, subtract its value from that letter"*

__Rules for correctly writing Roman numerals following the subtraction rule:__

- The ** symbol I ** can only subtract ** V ** (value 5) and ** X ** (value 10)

- The ** symbol X ** can only subtract ** L ** (value 50) and ** C ** (value 100)

- The ** symbol C ** can only subtract ** D ** (value 500) and ** M ** (value 1,000)

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#### Know and apply the rules of the Roman Numeral System: Repetition rule

We propose some ** activities ** ready to print together with the ** explanation ** of the ** repetition rule**:

*"The letters I, X, C and M can be repeated two and three times and always add up; on the other hand, the letters V, L and D cannot be repeated"*

__ Very important__: The ** V**, the ** L ** and the ** D ** cannot be duplicated because other letters ("**X**", "**C**" and "**M**") represent their duplicate value:

The number 10 is represented by the letter X since writing it "VV" (5 + 5) would be incorrect. Nor can we write "LL" (50 + 50) to represent 100 (we use the letter C) or repeat "DD" (500 + 500) to represent 1,000 since we use the symbol M

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#### Know and apply the rules of the Roman Numeral System: Multiplication rule

We provide you with ** exercises ** accompanied by the ** explanation ** of the ** multiplication rule ** that is used to write ** numbers equal to or greater than 4,000**:

*"An upper bar above a letter or group of letters multiplies its value by a thousand"*

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#### Read and write numbers in the Roman Numeral System

ROMAN NUMBERS UP TO THOUSANDS

Rule for writing Roman numerals up to 3,999

We will use the rule of repetition using the letter "M" to represent 1,000 (M), 2,000 (MM) and 3,000 (MMM).

** Example**: MMDCCCLXXIX = 2,000 (MM) + 800 (DCCC) + 70 (LXX) + 9 (IV) = 2,879

Rule for writing Roman numerals from 4,000

We cannot repeat, in a row, more than three times a letter of the Roman numeration system (rule of repetition) so the ** number 4,000 cannot be represented with 4 letters "M"**. The __ solution__ is to draw a ** top bar above a letter or group of letters ** so that its value is __ multiplied by a thousand__.

ROMAN NUMBERS UP TO MILLIONS

Rule for writing Roman numerals up to 3,999,999

Again we will use the symbol "M" and apply the rule of repetition. But now, as a differentiating element, we will draw a ** top bar so that each of the letters (M, MM and MMM) are multiplied by 1,000 **

For example, the number 2,000,000 arises from multiplying MM (value 2,000) by 1,000

Rule for writing Roman numerals from 4,000,000

To represent ** Roman numerals equal to or greater than 4,000,000**, we will draw an __ upper horizontal double line __ over the group of letters that we wish to __ multiply by 1,000,000 __

Remember that each of the horizontal lines that we write on the letters multiplies the value of that letter by 1,000. In this case, as it is a ** double upper bar, it will multiply the value of the letters 2 times by 1,000**: 1,000 x 1,000 = 1,000,000

ROMAN NUMBERS UP TO BILLIONS

Rule for writing Roman numerals up to 3,999,999,999

If we want to write a billion, two billion, or three billion; we simply have to draw a ** double upper bar over each of the letters (M, MM and MMM) ** so that they are __ multiplied by 1,000,000 __

For example, the number 3,000,000,000 comes from multiplying MMM (value 3,000) by 1,000,000 (double horizontal bar, that is, 1,000 x 1,000).

Rule for writing Roman numerals from 4,000,000,000

To represent ** Roman numerals equal to or greater than 4,000,000,000 ** we will draw a __ triple upper horizontal line __ over the group of letters that we wish to __ multiply by 1,000,000,000 __

Remember that each of the horizontal lines that we write on the letters multiplies the value of that letter by 1,000. In this case, being a ** upper triple bar, it will multiply the value of the letters 3 times by 1,000**: 1,000 x 1,000 x 1,000 = 1,000,000,000

#### Classify numbers from the Roman Numeral System: Greater than - Less than - Equal

After learning how to write any Roman numeral correctly, we present you a set of ** activities ** so that you can also ** compare any two Roman numerals ** indicating which is the ** greater**, the ** lower ** or if they are ** equivalent**.

#### Identify the largest and smallest number in a series of numbers from the Roman Numeral System

We teach you to identify which is the ** greatest number ** and the ** smallest ** of a ** series of random Roman numerals ** from the ** downloadable exercises ** that we have prepared.

#### Classify numbers of the Roman Numeration System: Before - After numbers

We provide you with ** worksheets** in PDF where you have to ** join the Roman numerals ** of the central column with their ** previous number ** (left) and their ** next** (right).

#### Write the numbers of the Roman Numeration System before and after a given one

We instruct you in an ** learning** where we present you some ** Roman numerals ** that you must identify and then ** write their previous number ** (left) and their ** after number ** (right).

Do you want access to more Fourth Grade learning?

Select more ** exercises**, ** worksheets** and ** activities ** of ** Mathematics ** for each of the 4 learning blocks of the Educational Curriculum (*"Numbers and Operations", "Quantities and Measurements", "Geometric and Spatial Reasoning" and "Data Analysis and Probability"*) aimed at improving the logical-mathematical competencies and skills that are developed throughout ** "Grade 4" or "Year 5"**:

##### NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

##### QUANTITIES AND MEASUREMENTS

##### GEOMETRIC AND SPATIAL REASONING

##### DATA ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITY

Education is a means to an end, it will never be an end in itself

Pearl Zhu